Although most cells in the human body divide by mitosis, once they undergo specialization, not all of them can. This article states that brain, matured bone, cardiac myocytes, fat and certain white blood cells are among this group.
This article talks about research done by scientists that allowed them to learn more about how the cell repairs itself after splitting. They found that a microfilament called F-actin plays a role in rebuilding the cell.
This article claims that cell division and the cell cycle was discovered by Walter Flemming in the 19th century. Flemming used color dye to see cells clearly and he studied cells through microscopes. He started drawing images of every different phase and realized that there were patterns. He then published his work and even made a name for chromatin. Later, he wrote a German book on the cell in 1878.
This article talks about how too much heat is bad for plants. Once exposed to excessive sunlight, the plants start to focus on survival rather than growth and will not grow any larger in size. It uses all its energy to repair its DNA instead of continuing the cell cycle and making more cells.
Right now we only have 3 checkpoints, but scientists discovered another checkpoint in between the S phase and G2.
The molecular pathway they discovered, which they refer to as the S/G2 checkpoint, detects ongoing DNA replication and sends out a signal that delays the start of the G2 phase. A series of enzymes relay signals, ultimately leading to the inactivation of a particular kinase that gives the thumbs up to mitosis.
A new study led by scientists at the Nara Institute of Science and Technology discovered that when there is DNA damage, plants stop cell division and perform DNA repair so that the damaged cells don’t multiply.
Plants have developed a system to stop their cell cycle when their environment is unfriendly. For example, when it’s too hot, they use their energy for survival rather than growth.
Researchers exposed mutant and normal cells to different temperatures and osmotic pressure and cells stopped multiplying in both at a high osmotic pressure, but higher temperatures only caused pauses in the cell cycle in normal cells.
In this article, it talks about how researchers have found a vital checkpoint in the cell cycle that can potentially prevent spreading of cancer cells. It says that they found a checkpoint between the G2 and Synthesis stages.
We are familiar with cells going through the cell cycle and mitosis, but what about the ones that don’t?
Brain cells, for example, are nearly never replaced. They last throughout your entire life, but that’s what makes neurodegenerative diseases such a big problem.
Take Parkinson’s disease as an example.
Certain neurons in the brain gradually break down or die, causing the symptoms that can be observed by doctors and other people, like tremors or the loss of automatic movements. They start off nearly unnoticeable, but become worse over time.
Although it can’t be cured, some medications could improve symptoms greatly by regulating specific regions of the brain.
Cyclins are a group of proteins found in each phase of mitosis. There are 4 basic cyclins, G1, G2/S, S, and S2, they help with the cell go through each phase. They come in different amounts and they are more of them when they are needed/ in their phase.
This article talks about how researchers at the University of Dundee have found a new discovery which could help better understand the cell cycle. The discovery was in regards to a class of enzymes known as phosphatases and how it may play a key role in mitosis. This is important because after further research it could potentially be used to treat different diseases.
mysciencepalace.wordpress.com is an article which talks about the healing process of a cut or wound. it explains and expands on how cells surrounding the wound start to divide and replicate themselves, this is a healing process. since cell division is typically a longer process, a scab forms over said wound so the cells can reproduce and when the scab falls off the skin underneath will be repaired.
In mitosis, cells divide their chromosomes through the help of spindle fibers, generally formed from the centriole in animal cell. However, plants don't have centrioles, so where do they get their spindle fibers from? According to this article, a type of organelle called the microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) exists in plant cells. In plant cells that do have cytoskeletons, it may be possible that this would be the source for the spindle fibers. However, it remains unclear where else plant cells may use to form spindle fibers when there is no cytoskeleton present.
This article details the finds of a team of scientists as to why plants grow slower in hotter climates. Although the behaviour was already well documented, scientists were recently able to identify the biological response that triggers the slowing down of growth and focus on repair (transcription factors ANAC044 and ANAC085). This will allow scientists to develop better ways to control the growth of crops and other plants.
Scientists at the Nara Institute of Science and Technology have found that plants have developed a system that stops their cell cycle in hostile environments like abnormally hot temperatures. In response to hostile environments, they direct their energy to survival rather than growth. The researchers exposed the cells to different temperatures and osmotic pressure which causes a delay in the G2 and G1 progression. The findings give clues on ways to modulate the growth of crops and other agriculture products.
This article explains how living things are continuously creating cells. It is necessary for cells to keep creating because they are needed for growth, repair, and to replace dead cells. To create cells, cell division occurs. Cell division, happens in mainly 2 stages, Interphase and Mitosis. Interphase is the period in which the cell grows and prepares for cell division. Mitosis results in 2 daughter cells which contain the same DNA and has 4 stages to it. The first being prophase, in which the chromatin condenses into chromosomes, the nuclear membrane breaks down, and the nucleus disappears. The second stage is metaphase, in which chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell. Anaphase is the next phase, during which the chromosomes pull apart and each sister chromatid is pulled to the opposite side of the cell. Telophase, the next phase, occurs when two nuclei are created at opposite ends of the cell, a cleavage furrow occurs in the middle of the cell. The cell than seperates into two new cells, this phase is called Cytokinesis, but becuz it happens so fast it usually put into the same category as Telophase.