Did you know tumors can be resistance to drugs and therapy? It's possible because the tumor drug resistance gains speed as tumors enhance their energy use in the body. In turn, this allows these masses to grow faster and more efficiently as well as improving their resistance to the chemical attacks leveled by treatments that are intended to kill them. Initially, tumors get energy from anaerobic respiration. This is a “low-oxygen” form of metabolism amongst cells that isn't normally seen in the human body. However, tumors often promote anaerobic respiration as they start to develop and grow. This mode of metabolism supports a hypoxic environment, allowing the tumor to produce dangerous, often inflammatory molecules within it and its immediate vicinity. These molecules damage the health of the normal tissues around it and may even induce necrosis within the tumor itself and may help tumors develop the tiny blood vessels they need to survive and grow. If tumors become sufficiently large and long-lived, their cells may be able to switch to aerobic respiration. This metabolic strategy is generally more efficient and effective, which is why tissues such as the muscle prefer it to anaerobic respiration. Larger, aerobic tumors may be more likely to develop drug resistance.
Plants can also respire anaerobically, which can be extremely useful when their roots become completely waterlogged (and thus unable to access oxygen). Plants anaerobically respire by ethanol fermentation in the same way that yeast respires when making alcohol and bread.
1. Pyruvate is decarboxylated (loses a CO2 molecule) to produce ethanal (with the help of the enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase).
2. Reduced NAD (NADH + H+) is oxidised, with ethanal accepting the hydrogen atoms that are freed, reducing to ethanol (with the help of the enzyme ethanol dehydrogenase).
3. NAD is then free to return to the glycolysis reactions to be reduced again – producing more ATP – and to continue as a hydrogen carrier between glycolysis and fermentation.
As we all know anaerobic respiration is not as efficient as aerobic respiration, but there is also one more main reason why anaerobic respiration is not good and the reason is that it leaves a poisonous chemical, lactic acid. Lactic acid is not good for your body as it stops yours muscles working and they get sore. This is the reason why your muscles feel sore after exercising because your cells need more oxygen, and you cannot supply that much oxygen for aerobic respiration to provide all the energy needed, so then our body uses anaerobic respiration to provide energy.
New research has shown that naked mole rats can live for up to 18 minutes without oxygen. Living in underground environments, naked mole rats do not seem to be affected by low oxygen levels. Scientists then analyzed the mechanisms that allow the mole rat to do this and discovered that under low oxygen environments, mole rats stop metabolizing glucose and instead start metabolizing fructose. The mole rats have high levels of a transporter molecule named GLUT5 and an enzyme called KHK, which is what allows them to use fructose for energy instead of glucose, a process that is now anaerobic and thus doesn't require oxygen. Scientists are now trying to implement similar fructose metabolizing pathways in places of the human body, such as the heart or brain, areas that suffer severe damage if deprived of oxygen for short amounts of time.
Native to East Africa, the Naked Mole Rat spends the majority of its days burrowed underground. Often times, the air gets stuffy when they're in the ground for that long. Scientists set up an anaerobic environment and observed them slow down and fall into a "metabolic trance", and then after a small break get up and continue at their usual energetic pace. They set out to find why this happened. They found that the rats have high levels of a transporter molecule called GLUT5 as well as an enzyme called KHK (hepatic fructokinase). Together, the transporter and the enzyme allow the rats to use fructose, instead of glucose, for energy - a molecular process that is anaerobic, meaning it doesn't require oxygen. That explains the "trance" - when they detect low levels of exygen, they convert from aerobic to anaerobic and are vulnerable for that brief "trance" period.
There is a new addition to cancer therapy may stop drug resistance in tumors. Initially, tumors derive energy from anaerobic respiration. This is a “low-oxygen” form of metabolism among cells that is not normally seen in the human body. However, tumors often promote anaerobic respiration as they start to develop and grow. This mode of metabolism supports a hypoxic environment, which, in turn, allows the tumor to produce dangerous, often inflammatory molecules within it and its immediate vicinity. These molecules damage the health of the normal tissues around it and may even induce necrosis or ischemia within the tumor itself. Their strategy was to find a new adjunct (or additive that may be bound directly to a drug molecule to enhance its efficacy in vivo) for existing therapies. This adjunct would target tumor-cell metabolism and prevent its switching from anaerobic to aerobic respiration. A tumor ‘stuck’ on anaerobic ‘mode’ may then be an easier target for the drug molecules attached to the adjunct.
Researchers have been looking for a way to prevent and stop tumour drug resistance. They have found that tumours gain resistance as they enhance their energy use in the body. Originally, tumours derived their energy from anaerobic respiration which is not normally seen in the human body. This type of respiration in the body produces and acidic environment (lacking oxygen) which causes the tumour to produce inflammatory molecules which damage the health of normal tissues. If tumours become very large, they switch to using aerobic respiration. These large tumours are the ones able to develop drug resistance (such as chemotherapy). Researchers have found a solution to this problem by adding an additive to the drugs which prevents the tumour from switching to aerobic respiration. The researchers concluded that cellular respiration is an important factor to finding the treatment to cancer.
Yogurt is created through the process of fermentation. In the production of yogurt, lactose (compound sugar found in milk) is fermented by both Streptococcus and Lactobacillus bacteria. Once the lactose is treated, it is incubated in at (45°C) for three to six hours which allows fermentation to occur. The bacteria Streptococcus will create the lactic acid as it ferments the glucose and lactose. The lower the pH becomes, the more viscous the liquid milk is. Most of the flavor of yogurt is derived from carbonyl compounds. One of these compounds, acetaldehyde, gives yogurt a nutty flavour. The end product will create yogurt after it is refrigerated.
When you exercise the muscles in your body must contract, in order to do that they need oxygen, glucose, a molecule called ATP, and amino acids. As your muscles use these compounds and contract themselves, they will create waste products like carbon dioxide, and lactic acid that must be carried away from the muscles. When exercising many muscles will all require nutrients and elimination of waste products constantly at the same time. To meet this demand the heart must rapidly increase the rate at which it beats and pushes blood through the body. The blood in our body delivers the oxygen and glucose to the cell for it to make ATP and also carries away the carbon dioxide produced during cellular respiration, specifically from Pyruvate Oxidation and Krebs Cycle.
Anaerobic exercises, such as sprinting and intense weight lifting, build muscle strength and mass, which help you burn calories and stay lean. Consistently exercising in an anaerobic state also builds muscle endurance so your body can efficiently remove lactic acid and sustain longer periods of intense exercise. This is an important skill for many sports, such as basketball, sprinting, soccer, football and field hockey. Anaerobic exercise helps your body reach its peak cardiorespiratory fitness level. This means your body consumes oxygen efficiently during higher levels of intense exercise before switching to anaerobic respiration.
While exercising, your muscles need energy in order to contract. That energy (ATP) is produced from glucose molecules that we obtain from our food. However, when are muscles are working very hard and require more oxygen than our respiratory and circulatory system can supply, our body turns to anaerobic respiration. Lactic acid fermentation takes place when glucose is broken down when there is an insufficient amount of oxygen. Pyruvate turns into lactate to oxidize NADH which ends up producing lactic acid in our muscles. According to researchers, lactate is not responsible for muscle soreness that is felt after we exercise. Lactate levels were examined after exercise and found minimal correlation with the level of soreness felt in the muscles after a few days. The burning sensation remains unclear however they believe that the soreness comes from muscle cell damage and an “elevated release of various metabolites into the tissue surrounding the muscle cells.” This causes an increase in inflammation which leads to soreness a few days after exercising.
Researchers have found that the protein Stat3 plays a key role in regulating mitochondria, the energy-producing machines of cells.They have described a new pathway by which generation of ATP is regulated. This pathway could suggest new ways for Stat3 to be therapeutically manipulated to treat a variety of diseases where there are imbalances between energy generation and energy demands such as occurs in cancer and heart disease.A team of researchers examined oxygen consumption in cultured cells and hearts of mice. They discovered that when Stat 3 protein was missing, cells consumed less oxygen and produced less ATP, the key molecular form of cellular energy. The findings revealed that Stat3 is necessary for the function of the mitochondrial electron transport chain that generates ATP.
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