This is called a mirage not the Miraj in our class but an illusion that is caused by atmospheric conditions. It occurs because of tir. It usually happens because of the temperature of the air. When tir happens we extrapolate and we see an image in the ground or water.
I learned that the reason roads look wet on hot days is because of refractions and mirages. The air near the road is heated so light refracts as it moves from warm air to cool air, because of the different densities. Our eyes see a virtual image of the car, making it seem like the image of the car is reflected onto a puddle.
This journal talks about how we may be seeing mirages on mars when looking at the pictures the Viking lander has sent back. At the distance it is placed at the image may show an inferior mirage.
This article talks about the phenomena of rainbows. It explains that the sun interacts with a "swarm" of rain droplets (sun's white light rays) via total internal refraction inside the rain droplets, and dispersion (refraction of the white light into the droplets, which converts the light energy into the lights within the visible spectrum that all have different angles relative to the normal, which means each color has a different speed which can be calculated by the product of the color's frequency of its waves, and its wavelength).
the earliest forms of lenses date all the way back in 750 BC. It is known as the Nimrud lens. They were made by polished crystal (usually quartz). Ancient Romans and Greeks used spheres filled with water as lenses. Glass lenses were thought of in the middle ages.
Something i found interesting about lenses is the fact that in mirrors, diverging mirrors cast light in more directions and concave focus it in one, but for lenses its the other way around, with diverging lenses focusing on one spot while concave diverge light.
Halos and sundogs are caused by the refraction of light through ice crystals.
"China's Floating City and The Science of Mirages"
In this article, it discusses the idea of superior mirage (upward projecting mirage), also known as a fata morgana. To have this, you would need cold dense air near the ground with warmer air over it in a layer. Although this normally occurs in polar regions and large bodies of water, it can still occur over land. In this particular region, there appeared to be a floating city above the city of Jiangxi, China, and after much speculation and atmospheric research alike, videos and pictures of this occurrence have been dubbed real.
A fata morgana is what causes people to see 'flying ships' (the Flying Dutchman), or the ghost ships mentioned in stories.
This site has images and explanations of refraction/light phenomena such as mirages. It’s interesting to see that there are so many weird things that light can do to trick your eyes. They really do look real in the picture!
"A telephoto lens is a lens that appears to magnify distant objects. To do that, they need to have a focal length longer than that of a normal lens, or a lens that approximates the optical qualities of the human eye. A normal lens has a focal length of between 40mm and 58mm on a full frame camera so any lens with a focal length longer than 60mm can be considered a telephoto lens. The longer the focal length, the more magnification there is."
This articles goes on to compare images taken by a camera with a telephoto lens. Telephoto lenses in cameras also work with mirrors and other lenses to create magnified yet focused images
The standard explanation for how a mirage forms is that since cold air has a higher refractive index than warm air, light will follow a curved path where there is a gradient of warm to cold air.
However, quantum electrodynamics explains the phenomenon by photons taking the path of minimum time to get from one point to another. The photons taking "shortcuts" causes them to follow a curved path. Either way, the observer sees an image that is quite some distance from the object, and will often see water or trees where there are none.
This article explains the phenomenon of gravitational lenses. The gravitational pull of the sun causes us to perceive stars at a different location than they actually are.
Pinhole cameras work through projecting light onto a film, or light sensitive layer, that embeds the permanent shape of the image n the given area. This acts as a rudimentary photo. The rays come in through a small hole in the box and are kept together from there using a process known as diffraction. This produces an inverted image on the area of the photo.
In this article I learned how lenses are used in contact lenses to correct errors in the vision, due to the improper refraction of light by the eye. For example, Diverging lenses are used to fix Myopia,(short-sightedness). Concave lenses are used to increase focal length, as the light rays from an object in myopia only reach the front of the retina, and not on it. Also, Convex lenses are used to fix Hyperopia( far-sightedness), by lowering the focal length of light, thus reducing distance of an image.
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