Mitochondria provide the energy for the cell to function. Although the amount of mitochondria varies widely from cell to cell, the average animal cell contains one thousand to two thousand mitochondria. In addition, animal cells contain on average ten million ribosomes.
Scientists at the University of Ottawa discovered that the changing shapes of mitochondria influence neurogenesis, the development of neurons. The scientists have pieced together a connection between the organelle’s shape transitions and how it carries out it’s signaling functions.
New ways of influencing stem cells through dietary or pharmacological means, to improve mitochondrial function to maintain optimum learning and memory is being explored. Mitochondria can signal the nucleus and change the cell. These researchers are excited because so many of the signals themselves seem to be metabolite molecules therefore scientists should potentially be able to manipulate them easily to alter the fates of cells or to revitalize depleted stem cell populations.
This article claims that there is a new organelle called the tannosome which produces tannin. The tannosomes are small structures within the chloroplast that makes tannins which produce things like wine. The thylakoids in a cell forms these tannosomes. This new finding solves the mystery of where tannins are produced.
The nucleus was is the control Centre telling everyone what to do. The ribosomes float all around the cell. The ER looks like it’s tired because it has a huge job wishing the cell; all the vesicles go through it. The golgi says that it needs a break because it is responsible for tansoortinb things outside of the cell. The vacuole is the storage compartment and the lysosomes are responsible for digestion.
Cells move in different ways, some cells move in liquids other move around with flagella or cilia. They are like legs that move the cell. Flagella are longer and there are less of them, whereas cilia are shorter and there are alot. They are both made of nine pairs of fused protein microtubules. Their arms are made of dynein, which is apart of a family of cytoskeletal motor proteins.
This news article reports on an exciting development in biology. Scientists were able to inject the nuclei of 28,000 year old mammoth cells into those of mice and were able to detect cellular activity! However, the DNA of the mammoth was not preserved well enough to allow the cells to replicate, so as of now, we still cannot revive mammoths.
Researchers have recently found that rabbits prefer to eat plants with a larger genome size (amount of DNA in an organism’s cells) while invertebrates prefers to eat plants with much less DNA. Dr Illia Leitch argues that genome sizes should be considered in ecological models that are describing ecological processes. This can help with research and the understanding of ecology.
We know that cells are the basic structures of all living organisms, but what were the first cells?
They were most likely extremely simplistic prokaryotic-like cells – no more than organic compounds – surrounded by a lipid membrane. They wouldn’t have had a nucleus nor other membrane-bound organelles.
But scientists believe that only one early cell led to all life on Earth – the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA). It probably existed about 3.5 billion years ago.
This article talks about the powerhouse of the cell (that being the mitochondria), and talk about the functions they've discovered for it in the past. Recently, the University of Ottawa discovered that a mitochondria's ability to morph into different shapes heavily influence the development of neurons, aka neurogenesis.
This article talks about how mitochondria might not only be used for generating power (ATP) from food but also contributes to other vital processes inside the cell such as helping the development of stem cells and sending signals to other organelles within the cell to help them with their jobs. This is a very recent report so maybe in a few years, we will discover other functions of the mitochondria.
Researchers from Mount Sinai and IBM say they have discovered a new clue in explaining how cancer cells with identical genomes can respond differently to the same therapy. After exposing various types of cells to six concentrations of a pro-apoptotic (causing apoptosis, which is the process of our bodies eliminate billions of cells each day) drug and measuring the abundance of mitochondria within the surviving cells, they discovered that surviving cells had a greater amount of mitochondria than untreated cells. This strongly suggests that cells with fewer mitochondria are more likely to respond to certain drug treatments.“Enhancing our understanding of the relationship between mitochondria variability and drug response may lead to more effective targeted cancer treatments, allowing us to find new ways to tackle the problem of drug resistance,” said Pablo Meyer, Ph.D.
This article talks about a group of diseases called Mucopolysaccharide storage diseases which happen due to impaired function of lysosomes. They are rare diseases which made them less known. However, now there are better screening methods and focus on earlier signs of the diseases which allow people to start treatment earlier. These new treatments and therapies lead to higher life expectancy, even for severely affected patients. Hopefully more importance will be put on rare diseases such as these in the future.
this article shows you the timeline of when and which cells and organelles where discovered over the years starting off with the mitochondria.
We know that mitochondria, unlike other organelles, has their own DNA. However, not only does chloroplasts also have this characteristic, they both also can reproduce themselves like bacteria. Thus, scientist formed a theory (Endosymbiotic theory) that states that mitochondria and chloroplasts may have once been bacterial cells that got ingested by primitive cells which became the modern eukaryotic cells. The cells that ingested them also hosted them, and over time the organelles became a standard part of the host cells. Understanding how modern cells came to be is crucial to understand the relationship between their structure and functions, and it is interesting to imagine what would happen to our cells millions of years into the future under evolution.
This is a fun comic depicting the cell functions in a fun way by “talking “ All the cells have comments related to their functions and, though not all are completely direct.
In cells, there are a variety of different organelles in a cell. I would like to relate this to different jobs in our community. this is important because if we didn't have all these different types of jobs, than our community would lack certain resources. the same thing works for cells. if certain organelles did not exist, the cell cannot substain life and will die sooner.