As we know the mitochondria, best known as cellular power plants, since they perform numerous vital tasks in the cell. During cellular respiration, reactive oxygen species can be formed in mitochondria. If these are present in excess, their high reactivity leads to irreparable damage to important cellular components. This "oxidative stress" is assumed to play a causal role in many diseases and in ageing processes. However, in low concentrations, these reactive oxygen species can also act as important second messengers in the cell. This type of oxidative modification is reversible and, like a nano-switch, can regulate the function of a protein. Some German-Polish researchers from the University of Freiburg and the Centre of New Technologies in Warsaw/Poland were able to show that this newly discovered regulatory mechanism does not only exist in yeast, but also in human cells. The knowledge on how dysfunctional mitochondria communicate with other cellular components can help to explain the mechanisms of age related/neurodegenerative diseases in the future!
Misteltoe is known parasite that attaches to a host plant to choke it out and steal its nutrients. It has been found that the parasite is missing a key enzyme responsible for breaking sugar down into usable energy: Complex 1. Further studies were done. It was found that the parasite lacks several other complexes in the ATP assembly line. These enzymes are found in the mitochondria, where three of the four stages of cellular respiration are carried out, leaving only glycolysis to produce the ATP. Other theories were later introduced stating the the parasite does not need to produce as much energy as other proportionally sized organisms since it gets its energy from a host plant (metabolic efficiency).
Many diseases derive from problems with cellular respiration, the process through which cells extract energy from nutrients. Researchers at "Karolinska Institutet" in Sweden have now discovered a new function for a protein in the mitochondrion - popularly called the cell's power station - that plays a key part in cell respiration.
Every time we take a breath, our blood transports oxygen to the mitochondria, where it is used to convert the nutrients in our food to a form of energy that the body can use. Problems with this process, which is called cellular respiration, have been linked to a number of morbid conditions, from unusual genetic diseases to diabetes, cancer and Parkinson's, as well as to the normal ageing process. Despite the fact that cellular respiration is so basic, there is much scientists have yet to understand about how it is regulated.
Cellular respiration depends on proteins synthesised outside the mitochondrion and imported into it, and on proteins synthesised inside the mitochondrion from its own DNA. Researchers at "Karolinska Institutet" have now shown that a specific gene (Tfb1m) in the cell's nucleus codes for a protein (TFB1M) that is essential to mitochondrial protein synthesis. If TFB1M is missing, mitochondria are unable to produce any proteins at all and cellular respiration cannot take place.
The scientists believe that the study represents a breakthrough in the understanding of how mitochondrial protein synthesis is regulated, and thus increases the chances of one day finding a treatment for mitochondrial disease, something which is currently unavailable.
ATP is synthesized through cellular respiration, which is a process that converts energy from nutrients into ATP. It all starts in the glycolysis stage, where there is an investment phase in which ATP is converted into ADP. At the payoff phase of glycolysis, ADP gets converted into ATP. Glycolysis produces a total of 4 ATP molecules. During the whole process of aerobic cellular respiration, a total of 36 ATPs are created.
Researchers may have discovered a way to help stop drug resistance in tumors. Many chemotherapy drugs work well at first, but then become less effective due to the tumors developing resistance to the drugs. It was discovered that tumors grow faster, bigger, and become more resistant to drugs as energy usage is more efficient. Tumors first get their energy from anaerobic respiration, however given enough time to grow large enough, it has been discovered that the tumor cells switch to aerobic respiration, which allows for it to become more drug resistant. Scientists then created an additive to bind to a drug molecule that would prevent the tumors from switching to aerobic respiration, allowing for current drugs to work more effectively.
One of the reasons why we sweat during exercises is due to cellular respiration. When we increase our muscle activity, this increases the demand for ATP from tissues, which increases the rate of cellular respiration. However, only forty-percent of energy from food can be transferred which leaves the extra sixty-percent to be transformed into heat as a by-product. This causes humans to sweat in order to maintain homeostasis to keep the core body temperature constant.
Fibromyalgia, also called fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), is a long-term condition that causes pain all over the body. Mitochondria are the power plants of the cell, they contain enzymes that are important for cell metabolism, including those that convert food to usable energy. Cells can increase their mitochondrial number through fission of the mitochondrion, which are the sites of cellular respiration, the catabolic process that uses oxygen to generate the energy-containing molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Cells needing immediate high energy, like muscle cells, require creatine for energy storage. Creatine is produced by the liver, kidneys, and pancreas, and converted to a high-energy, phosphorylated derivative called phosphocreatine. This in turn converts ADP to ATP by transferring its high-energy phosphate via creatine kinase. Carbohydrate intake and insulin secretion increase muscle cell use of creatine.
An energy disturbance in the body can lead to fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue, and other inflammations in the body.
Researchers at the Swedish medical university Karolinska Institutet have now discovered a new function for a protein in the mitochondrion that plays a key part in cell respiration. Cellular respiration depends on proteins synthesised outside the mitochondrion and imported into it, and on proteins synthesised inside the mitochondrion from its own DNA. Researchers at Karolinska Institutet have now shown that a specific gene (TFB1M) in the cell's nucleus codes for a protein (TFB1M) that is essential to mitochondrial protein synthesis. If TFB1M is missing, mitochondria are unable to produce any proteins at all and cellular respiration cannot take place.
Many diseases come from problems with cellular respiration, the process through which cells extract energy from nutrients. Researchers at Karolinska Institute in Sweden have now discovered a new function for a protein in the mitochondrion - called the cell's power station - that plays a key part in cell respiration.That a specific gene (Tfb1m) in the cell's nucleus codes for a protein (TFB1M) that is essential to mitochondrial protein synthesis. If TFB1M is missing, mitochondria are unable to produce any proteins at all and cellular respiration cannot take place.
Cellular respiration is vital for humans and helps produce the energy we need in order to survive. Researchers from Virginia Commonwealth University have discovered a protein called Stat3 that is present in the mitochondria and plays a key role in controlling the production of ATP. The researchers discovered that when Stat3 was missing, cells consumed less oxygen and produced less ATP. This protein is necessary “for the function of the mitochondrial electron transport chain that generates ATP”. This helps maintain cellular homeostasis. This discovery has the possibility to create new treatments for heart disease by boosting the energy in the heart muscle.
Researchers have known that cellular respiration involves proteins synthesized outside of the mitochondrion and imported inside. It also involves some proteins that are synthesized inside the mitochondrion using its own DNA. Researchers have now shown that a specific gene (Tfb1m) in the cell's DNA in the nucleus codes for a protein (TFB1M) that is essential to mitochondrial protein synthesis. If this gene is not present then protein sysnthesis in the mitochondria can’t occur and cellular respiration won’t be able to take place. This was shown when mice which lacked the gene died in the feocal stage and couldn’t survive because they couldn’t go through the process of cellular respiration.
Cellular respiration is the reason why a person sweats while exercising. The reason you sweat when you do exercise is because the rate of cellular respiration is increased in order to transfer the extra energy you need to ATP. However, only 40 percent of energy from food can be transferred, leaving the extra 60 percent to transform into heat, making you sweat.
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