Enzymes play a huge role in the medicine industry. Many diseases are due to a surplus/shortage of these enzymes, and since that was discovered, medicine has been specifically synthesized with qualities to combat such problems. Both competitive and non-competitive inhibitors represent the compounds that break off from the drug when it's ingested. Biochemistry is in everything whether you know it or not. Take any object in the room. Its structure dictates its function, and its chemical makeup has been specifically engineered and perfected through the uses of biochemistry.
Frances H. Arnold won the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for using biochemistry to force the evolution of proteins, which is one of building blocks of life. Arnold works as a protein engineer at the California Institute of Technology, where she tweaks DNA code to adapt new functions for enzymes. She used biochemistry to pressure proteins into working for us. Arnold accomplished this task by growing bacteria and their internal enzymes in a hostile environment filled with a solvent; a chemical that erodes other objects. She and her lab were trying to develop enzymes that could resist the corrosive powers of the solvent. Why does this all matter? Arnold's work led to her lab to evolve bacteria that can produce biofuels, and other scientists have employed her methods to make detergents, taste enhancers and diabetes drugs.
Scientists have discovered a molecule that is capable of killing off current drug resistant bacteria that can cause severe illness. While most current antibiotics kill bacteria by weakening their cell walls or preventing certain proteins from forming, antibiotic resistance has caused many bacteria to no longer respond to these current drugs. However, scientists have developed a new drug, which inhibits an enzyme in the bacteria's cell membrane that helps the bacteria secrete proteins. With the enzyme blocked, proteins build up, and the cell bursts, which kills the cell and thus the bacteria. In tests, this molecule was effective in killing off strains of bacteria that cause illness, as well as strains of bacteria that are resistant to the antibiotics we use currently. It is hopeful that this drug can be used in humans, as this could potentially solve the problem of the continuing antibiotic resistance we see today.
WE have studied biochemistry and its uses in real life. We studied enzymes and how they help the break down reactants in our body.Enzymes are also used in production and processing of food items specifically produced at industrial level. From second last decade of twentieth century, food processing companies are using enzymes that are produced through genetically modified organisms . These enzymes comprises of proteases and carbohydrases. Genes for these enzymes have been cloned so as to get higher production in less time period. These enzymes are used for making cheese, curd and flavoring food items. Major percentage of these enzymes is used in food industry as in US more than 50% of proteases and carbohydrases are used in food industry.
Biochemistry is important for everyday chemical and physical processes in agriculture. It is used in the development of resistance against pesticides in order to maintain the environment. In particular, biochemical pesticides are pesticides that uses naturally occurring substances instead of chemicals to control pests. For example, plant incorporated protectants are pesticidal substances that plants produce from genetic material that has been added to the plant. Scientists can take the genes from outside sources and introduce it into the plant’s genetic material. This encourages the plant to manufacture substances that destroys pests and diseases which enhances the plant’s natural pest-fighting abilities.
Biochemistry use in pharmacy:
The pharmaceutical industry greatly relies on biochemistry because the chemical make-up of the body must be studied in relationship to the chemicals we might put in out body via prescription or over the counter drugs. Certain medications have been developed specifically because of biochemistry research.
For example, antidepressants like Paxil, Zoloft and Prozac, called serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are used because there is an underlying medical assumption that in depressed people, serotonin gets used too quickly by the body. This affects mood significantly. By inhibiting the body’s quick grab for serotonin, more free serotonin is allowed to circulate and thus improves depression.
Biochemistry helps to make the development of drugs like Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) possible because theories based on these drugs derive specifically from the study of chemicals produced by the body that affect mood. Biochemistry work in hormones, enzymes, proteins and cell interaction all enhance understanding of what type of chemicals might be needed to correct imbalances, without affecting the other chemicals produced in the body. Thus pharmaceutical research and development remains an extremely important field for biochemistry.
Biochemistry is everywhere and is present in many reactions that take place in the human body as well as in the outside world. Biochemistry is especially common in the pharmaceutical field. Boston Therapeutics Inc. is developing a chewable complex carbohydrate drug that is able to lower blood glucose levels after a meal. The drug is a polysaccharide that works in the GI tract and is called PAZ320. It works by “blocking the action of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes” and breaking down carbohydrates in the food we ingest. Without PAZ320, enzymes break down carbohydrates into simple sugars however with this new development, it inhibits enzymes that release glucose from carbohydrates. A drug like this will be able to prevent type 2 diabetes, kidney failure, strokes, and heart disease.
Biochemistry studies the structure and behaviour of the complex molecules found in biological material and the ways these molecules interact to form cells, tissues and whole organisms. For example, biochemistry is used to study mechanisms of brain function and the cellular multiplication and differentiation, communication within and between cells and organs, and the chemical bases of inheritance and disease. Biochemistry can determine how specific molecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, vitamins and hormones function in these processes. It provides explanations for the causes of many diseases in humans, animals and plants and it also suggests ways such diseases may be treated or cured.
Biochemistry has a big application in medicine because it provides a diagnostic platform. The medicine needed to be prescribed is based on the biochemical examination of blood to identify the problem. Excess or lack of certain metabolites(biochemicals) will be the reason for many medical conditions. Therefore, it is important to know if all organs are performing their functions optimally before concluding on a person’s health condition.
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